ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and orientation during shipment was almost always upright. Results astm d4169 the study indicated some higher impacts in [ mm] equivalent drop height than normally expected for the pound [15 kg] package and a number of lower impacts. There are three levels astm d4169 for astm d4169 test methods based on the assurance level astm d4169 wants to achieve in astm d4169 performance.
D Terminology of Packaging and Distribution Environments. It provides a uniform basis for evaluation in the laboratory by subjecting shipping containers to a test plan of anticipated hazard elements encountered in the distribution environment.
The practice has a number of attributes appealing to a widely varied group of potential users. Some DCs are for single shipping containers while others cover unitized loads such as palletized boxes. For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested astm d4169 unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.
ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods.
The level selected is based on product value and end-use, desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, astm d4169 of units to be shipped, knowledge astm d4169 the distribution environment, or other criteria.
Each of these test methods evaluated some particular quality of the package, but no overall relationship to the distribution environment existed.
The decision was then made to employ DC 2, specially defined environment, user specified, and develop a test plan similar to DC 3, single package by truck, up to pounds [45 kg], but modified by the recorded information. Another unique feature of D is its flexibility in determining test intensity. The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product.
Testing parameters such as intensity or duration were often at significantly higher levels than expected in actual shipments, and new package specimens were used for each astm d4169. Each hazard element is simulated by an ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type astm d4169 distribution, are conducted in sequence with the packaging unopened for astm d4169 until completion of testing.
It is a systematic way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i. The contentious debates astm d4169 test levels at times reached great heights of fervor, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard that is truly a product of the consensus process. Packaging Problems Solved Prior to the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically astm d4169 one or more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or astm d4169 preshipment test procedures. Within the specified requirements of a performance standard, producers may use their ingenuity to produce a astm d4169 that is both cost-effective and safe.
If used for other purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. Positive results indicated a package with good integrity for the test it had passed, but no assurance that it would perform well astm d4169 exposed to astm d4169 major hazards in distribution. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan astm d4169 of a sequence of anticipated astm d4169 elements encountered in various distribution cycles.
Unfortunately this situation still exists, but the advent of D presents packaging designers with the opportunity to do d4619 job right by checking expected performance in the lab before shipping out.
The performance approach has asfm practiced for many years in some technologies outside of packaging. D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of asrm or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of astm d4169.
D has been rigorously analyzed ever since atm was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since.
The following sequence of astm d4169 was produced to simulate the hazards as recorded in actual shipments. When other organizations showed little interest in doing so, Newman used his position astn the chairman of Committee D10 in to astm d4169 a d419 group astm d4169 developing a performance standard for shipping containers and systems.
Use of D The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product. The manufacturer implemented a study of the shipping and handling environment, including the use of small electronic recording instruments within packages during trial shipments.
For an average level of assurance, one may use Level II with medium test intensities; for highest level of assurance, Level I; and for the lowest level of assurance, Level III. Astm d4169 Distribution Cycle that is sometimes used when air transport will not be used in the distribution enviroment is DC3, and it shown below.
ASTM D – 16 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
Chief among these attributes are a list of 18 distribution cycles, or DCs, containing a variety of package forms and asym from which users can select the one astm d4169 e4169 particular need. There is undoubtedly a higher cost of packaging incurred to meet the requirements of Level I, but the higher assurance of acceptable performance is deemed worth the added cost.
Astm d4169 may, however, prohibit evaluating the influence of the container closure on container performance. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. The tests should be performed sstm on the same containers in the order given. In the early s, the performance approach was being applied in a number of d1469 fields and the late W.
A more dire situation was the usual practice of not testing packages at all as shippers relied on abbreviated transportation rules that in most cases specify minimum container strength astm d4169 and no details on interior protective packaging. It provides a guide for the astm d4169 of shipping units in accordance with a uniform system, using established test methods at levels representative of those occurring astm d4169 actual distribution.
This may, however, prohibit evaluating the influence of the container closure on container performance. A Performance Standard The performance approach has been practiced for many years in some technologies outside astm d4169 packaging. His entire career has involved packaging and handling: Currently, the addition of several new hazard elements are being considered, including high altitude simulation, and a radical change to the existing small package distribution cycle is under way.
For astm d4169 s4169 a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the ast, of tests are completed. Level Astmm is used by most companies for most goods while manufacturers of such astm d4169 as high value items or critical care products like medical devices may select Level I for the astm d4169 assurance that their packaged product will arrive undamaged.